The incidence of failed obstetric intubation is widely reported to be around 1. In 1998, the incidence of difficult laryngoscopy or tracheal intubation in the nonobstetric population was 0. Vii incidence of difficult or failed intubation in obstetrics. Difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics cormack, r. Whether this technique is also effective in patients with an expected difficult intubation is unclear. Difficult intubation has been classified into four grades, according to the view obtainable at laryngoscopy. Difficult laryngoscopy and failed tracheal intubation are associated with complications which can be serious, and on occasion, lifethreatening. The modified mallampati classification assesses the visibility of oropharyngeal structures when the mouth is maximally opened and tongue protruded.
Obstetric anaesthetists associationdifficult airway society difficult. Difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics, anaesthesia. Since then, there have been many local modifications to the original guideline as a result of developments in anaesthetic practice and changing patient population. A report by the american society of anesthesiologists task force on management of the difficult airway. We refer to this technique as ultrasoundguided tracheal intubation ugti.
Mushambi mc, kinsella sm, popat m, swales h, ramaswamy kk, winton al, quinn ac. Master algorithm obstetric general anaesthesia and failed tracheal intubation verify successful tracheal intubation and proceed plan extubation preinduction planning and preparation team discussion algorithm 1 safe obstetric general anaesthesia algorithm 2 obstetric failed tracheal intubation algorithm 3 cant intubate, cant oxygenate. Difficult tracheal intubation was encountered in 123 of 2,633 4. Failed tracheal intubation during obstetric general anaesthesia. At a time of declining numbers and experience in obstetric general anaesthesia, it is hoped that the publication of these national guidelines will improve consistency of clinical practice, reduce adverse events and provide a structure for teaching and training on failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics. Guidelines for the management of difficult and failed. Master algorithm obstetric general anaesthesia and. Summary appropriate airway management is an essential part of the anaesthetists role. The rate of failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics has remained unchanged over the past four decades. The obstetric anaesthetists association and difficult airway society have developed the first national obstetric guidelines for the safe management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation during general anaesthesia. Pdf obstetric anaesthetists associationdifficult airway society. This generic algorithm emphasizes a standardized and prespecified sequence of.
Incidence of unanticipated difficult airway using an. Difficult intubation, which can now be quantified using the intubation difficulty scale, should be anticipated whenever possible. Obstetric anaesthetists association difficult airway society 2015. Practice guidelines for management of the difficult airway.
Difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics cormack. Mhyre and others published the unanticipated difficult intubation in obstetrics find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Master algorithm obstetric general anaesthesia and failed tracheal intubation. Harmer department of anaesthetics and intensive care, university of wales college of medicine, cardiff, uk introduction successive reports on confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in britain have seen a steady decrease in the number of deaths. Difficult and failed tracheal intubation in obstetric patients is a wellknown problem with potentially devastating consequences. Maintenance of the airway during obstetric anaesthesia is difficult to estimate, still remains the single most important cause of anaesthesia.
Unanticipated difficult airways are dreaded amongst anaesthesiologists and difficult tracheal intubation and difficult mask ventilation dmv can cause serious patient complications 14. Obstetric anaesthetists association and difficult airway. Orotracheal intubation is preferred in apneic and critically ill patients because it can usually be done faster than nasotracheal intubation, which is reserved for awake, spontaneously. This chapter describes nearly every possible means of tracheal intubation, with emphasis on widely used techniques. Failure to predict difficult tracheal intubation for emergency caesarean. We have prospectively evaluated the conditions and success rate of tracheal intubation in patients with a mallampati score of iii or iv. All india difficult airway association 2016 guidelines for the management of unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation in adults sheila nainan myatra 1, amit shah 2, pankaj kundra 3, apeksh patwa 2, venkateswaran ramkumar 4, jigeeshu vasishtha divatia 1, ubaradka s raveendra 5, sumalatha radhakrishna shetty 5, syed moied ahmed 6, jeson rajan doctor 1, dilip k pawar 7, singaravelu. Frequency analysis suggests that, in obstetrics, the main cause of trouble is grade 3, in which the epiglottis. All india difficult airway association 2016 guidelines for. Better prediction of unanticipated difficult airways may reduce morbidity and mortality by allocating experienced personnel and relevant equipment. Anatomical and physiological changes in pregnancy exacerbate the problem and surgery is often performed with extreme urgency to ensure the wellbeing of a different individual to the patient. A strategy needs to be developed in order to anticipate problems. Difficult and failed intubation in obstetrics sciencedirect. As for as the predictors are concerned, different parameters for the prediction of difficult airways have been studied.
Obstetric anaesthetists associationdifficult airway. Performs difficult and failed airway management according to local protocols. Fortunately, the recently reported incidence of fatalities related to failed intubation in the parturient is declining. Difficult intubation caused by subglottic tracheal.
Tracheal intubation, usually simply referred to as intubation, is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea windpipe to maintain an open airway or to serve as a conduit through which to administer certain drugs. Principles and practices of obstetric airway management. The original guidelines and the first update in 2002 were developed by means of a sevenstep process. Difficult and failed intubation in obstetrics bja education oxford. Frequency analysis suggests that, in obstetrics, the main cause of trouble is grade 3, in which the epiglottis can be seen, but not the cords. Difficult and failed intubation in obstetrics request pdf. This is the first report of using realtime dynamic surface ultrasound to successfully guide tracheal intubation. The most common means of intubation in the emergency setting is rapidsequence intubation rsi, but this approach must be considered very carefully.
Introduction the difficult airway is a clinical situation which includes either difficulty with mask ventilation or tracheal intubation or both. The first obstetric failed intubation guideline was published by tunstall in 1976. A clinical sign to predict difficult tracheal intubation. Obstetric anaesthetists association and difficult airway society guidelines for the management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics. Tracheal intubation msd manual professional edition. This group is fairly rare so that a proportion of anaesthetists will not meet the problem in their first few years and may thus be unprepared for it in obstetrics. The interincisor gap is the maximal distance between the upper and lower incisors. Failed intubation in obstetrics remains a topical issue, a rare but potentially devastating complication of obstetric general anaesthesia. Factors contributing to failed obstetric intubation. However, once rapid sequence induction of general anesthesia is selected, the anesthesiologist should have a preformulated strategy to manage. Failed intubation in the obstetric patient has been estimated to be 1. Approximately 90 % of all cases of acquired chronic subglottic stenosis result from endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy. Videolaryngoscopy may be useful in obstetric airway management but only if the anaesthetist is familiar with the technique.
All india difficult airway association 2016 guidelines for the management of unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics, indian journal of anaesthesia, vol. The bercikaplan video laryngoscope was developed to improve the visualization of the glottis and ease tracheal intubation. Difficult glottic view on direct laryngoscopy is the most common cause of difficult intubation. Airway management of the obstetric patient whats new.
Difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics this final fraction involves formation of ion pairs with a consequent reduction in the activity of calcium ions in solution. The algorithms and tables are available in pdf and powerpoint formats on the. It is frequently performed in critically injured, ill, or anesthetized patients to facilitate ventilation of the lungs, including mechanical ventilation, and to. Ugti represents a novel approach to intubation and may serve as an alternative technique in patients with difficult direct or video laryngoscopy. Demonstrates the ability to perform surgical airway. Endotracheal intubation has long been considered standard of care for obstetric airway management 1, 2, but comes with the concomitant risk. Aidaa 2016 guidelines for the management of unanticipated. The difficult airway in obstetric anesthesia clinical gate. First, the task force reached consensus on the criteria for evidence. Management of unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation. The incidence of difficult intubation in this study is similar to that found in others. The danish difficult airway registry and preoperative respiratory airway assessment. Continue anaesthesia using sad if considered essential 2. Management of unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics.
Anesthesiologists, a difficult airway is defined as the clinical situation in which a conventionally trained anesthesiologist experiences difficulty with face. Prediction of difficult tracheal intubation european. Difficult intubation has been classijied into four grades, according to the view obtainable at laryngoscopy. Difficult and failed intubation in obstetrics continuing education in. The unanticipated difficult intubation in obstetrics. We are pleased to announce the publication in anaesthesia, of the obstetric anaesthetists association and difficult airway society guidelines for the management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics. Difficult intubation in the obese patient anesthesia. Orotracheal intubation is preferred to nasotracheal intubation in most cases and is done via direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy see how to do orotracheal intubation using video laryngoscopy. Lehane summary difficult intubation has been classijied into four grades, according to the view obtainable at laryngoscopy. It was thought that the gluconate ion might behave similarly, and this was the reason for making the suggestion that large amounts of gluconate might alter blood ionised calcium. Preoperative bedside screening tests for difficult tracheal intubation may be neither sensitive nor specific enough for clinical use. The most common cause of tracheal stenosis continues to be trauma, which can be internal prolonged endotracheal intubation, tracheostomy, flame burn injury or external blunt or penetrating neck trauma.
Consider awakening the mother if foetal and maternal conditions are stable consider one. The aim was to investigate if a combination of the mallampati classification of the oropharyngeal view with either the thyromental or sternomental distance measurement improved the predictive value. These changes have implications for the modern and safe management of difficult and failed intubation in obstetrics. Difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics anesthesia. All india difficult airway association 2016 guidelines the various physiological changes in pregnancy make the parturient vulnerable for early and rapid desaturation. Summary of important points and changes in obstetric airway management.
Rationale for the surgical treatment of morbid obesity. Obstetric general anaesthesia is associated with a number of deleterious effects and it has long been recognized that airway management can be challenging. Managing the obstetric difficult airway requires unique consideration and skills. Confirm tracheal intubation using capnography consider one of the following options. Approximately 1 in 300 obstetric patients who undergo the induction of general anesthesia will have a failed intubation with standard direct laryngoscopy. Severe hypoxaemia during intubation can potentially compromise two lives mother and foetus. Avoiding airway catastrophes in obstetrical patients medigraphic. Adam law, md,frcpca,e f in 1878, william macewen1 was the first to use endotracheal intubation for a patient who had cancer of the base of the tongue rather than tracheostomy, as was routine. Intubate through the sad if maternal safety dictates need using a fob only, provided expertise is available 3. Anatomical and physiological changes in pregnancy exacerbate the problem and surgery is often performed with extreme urgency to ensure the wellbeing of a.1609 1593 1084 706 640 17 476 1343 1278 595 1595 983 1245 1324 970 304 717 602 80 208 4 379 1333 1513 700 1463 1281 1332 1242 1368 173 1554 1515 1240 1105 166 65 983 857 947 1073 1248 150 980 985 1011 153 1159 1441